This
lesson plan is to help show students why they’re learning the math that you’ve
taught. It gives a great way to help them understand how to practice their
knowledge and how to utilize it in the real world.

### Necessary Background Knowledge (but need practice on)

Functions:

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

Statistics:

Range

Mean

Median

Mode

Line
Graph

Percentages:

Convert
decimals to percent

Convert
fractions to percent

Convert
percent into decimal

Convert
percent into fraction

Fractions:

Create
fractions from decimals

Create
fractions given two numbers

Simplify
fractions

### CommonCore Standards:

CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.1 Understand a fraction 1/

*b*as the quantity formed by 1 part when*a*whole is partitioned into*b*equal parts; understand a fraction*a*/*b*as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/*b*.
CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.2 Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving
multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol
for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative
comparison from additive comparison.

^{1}
CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.C.5 Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an
equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two
fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.

^{2}*For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100*.
CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.C.6 Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators
10 or 100.

*For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram*.
CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.3 Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by
the denominator (

*a*/*b*=*a*÷*b*). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.*For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50-pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?*
CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.6 Solve real world problems involving multiplication of
fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations
to represent the problem.

CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.7 Apply and extend previous understandings of division
to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.

^{1}
CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.7c Solve real world problems involving division of unit
fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit
fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the
problem.

*For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3-cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins?*
CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.B.2 Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard
algorithm.

CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.B.3 Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit
decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.

CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.6 Understand a rational number as a point on the number
line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous
grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number
coordinates.

CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.6c Find and position integers and other
rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and
position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane

CCSS.Math.Content.6.SP.B.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their
context, such as by:

CCSS.Math.Content.6.SP.B.5c Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or
mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as
well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the
overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

CCSS.Math.Content.6.EE.A.2 Write,
read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

CCSS.Math.Content.6.EE.B.5 Understand solving an equation or inequality as a
process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any,
make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a
given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.

CCSS.Math.Content.6.EE.B.6 Use variables to represent numbers and write
expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that
a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at
hand, any number in a specified set

CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.A.1 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add,
subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients.

CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.A.2 Understand that rewriting an
expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the
problem and how the quantities in it are related.

*For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.*
CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.B.3 Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems
posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers,
fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of
operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as
appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation
and estimation strategies.

*For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation*.
CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.B.4 Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world
or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to
solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.B.4a Solve word problems leading to equations of the
form

*px*+*q*=*r*and*p*(*x*+*q*) =*r*, where*p*,*q*, and*r*are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach.*For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?*### Materials:

Board
and your favorite way of writing on it

Restaurant
menu of your students’ choosing

Knowledge
of your local taxes (google it)

Field
trip

Students
will need paper and pencils

### Goals:

Help
students understand fractions, percentages, and statistics.

Help
students understand why knowledge of fractions, percentages, and statistics are
necessary in their everyday life.

Help
students practice their knowledge of fractions, percentages, and statistics.

### Built-In Interventions:

Friendly
towards auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners

Includes
a good deal of practice on the same skills

Includes
carrying the skills over to outside situations

Based
on students’ interests

Builds
off of pervious knowledge

Relates
to the real world

### Possible Additional Interventions:

Calculator

Bold
font

More
space/paper

Student
help (preferred)

Teacher
help

### I Can Statement:

I
can use my knowledge of fractions and percentages to help me in a
restaurant.

Spans
10 days- each day is scheduled for a 1 1/2 hour lesson with 3 minute breaks
every 15 minutes to play The Fraction Game, exercise/stretch, and socialize. There
is a field trip included. If you are unable to do the field trip, try to set up
a pretend restaurant in the classroom. It is preferred to actually take the
field trip though, so the students can carry their skills over. This is
important for all students, but especially so for students with disabilities.

### Day 1:

#### Beginning Board Work:

Decimals
to Fractions

2.34

4.5

3.25

4.75

6.98

1.
Find out what restaurant a lot of the students enjoy.

2.
Discuss the food at that restaurant and how their experience was. Ask what they
got last time they were there or their favorite items on the menu. Discuss what
your favorite items are there. (Mine chose Steak and Shake.)

3.
Find the menu online.

4.
Ask the students to come up with 3 meals with anything they want in them. Write
them on the board. (Students can follow along on their papers if they wish (or
if you need to make sure they’re paying attention.))

5.
On the board, together, add up the prices of each meal to find out what each
one would cost.

6.
Find the range of prices for the given meals.

7.
Find the mean, median, and mode of the prices for the given meals.

8.
Draw a number line to show the prices, the range, the mean, median, and the
mode.

### Day2:

#### Beginning Board Work:

Decimals
to Fractions

6.5

7.3

7.6

7.75

3.25

1.
Remind the students what you did yesterday with the 3 meals on the menu.
Discuss the range, mean, median, and mode of the prices.

2.
Discuss with the students about state taxes. (I will be using 5.5% since that’s
what it is in Ohio.) Explain to the students why we have taxes and where they
go to. (Include things students would agree are necessary and places it may go
to that they don’t agree with too- it’s a great way to have an open economics
and social studies discussion and debate since most likely you’ll have many
sides!) My students also asked about income taxes at this point, so I discussed
how my employers pay a tax on my pay, then I pay a tax on my pay, then when I
spend my pay I pay taxes again. We discussed whether they agreed with this or
not and the places it goes to. This part might take a while. That’s fine.

3.
Remind the students how to turn a percent into a decimal. (I like to use 100
pennies in a dollar, so each penny is a percent- so 5.5% is 5 and ½ pennies for
every dollar I spend or 55 cents for every $10.00 I spend.) Remind them to
always double check that they made the correct conversion from percent to
decimals is that the tax will never be more than what they spent to begin with.

4.
Discuss tips with the students- how an average job is 15%, a bad job is 10%, an
extremely horrifically bad job is 0% (very rare- but has happened!), a good job
is 20% and a great job is 25% or more- heck, you can even give 100% tip or
higher! Talk with the students how if they get a job as a waiter or waitress,
this is why you must always be polite and prompt with your customers, because
the better you do, the more tips you get.

5.
Ask the students how much money they generally take with them when they go out
to eat. Write it on the board.

At
this point you’ll probably have ran out of time.

### Day 3:

#### Beginning Board Work:

Fractions
to Percent

1/20

1/3

½

2/3

4/5

1. Remind the students about taxes and tips.
Remind the students you need to turn a percent into a decimal to use it with
prices.

2.
With the students, calculate the tax and tip on the board for each meal.

3.
Add the tax and tip to the price of each meal for the total cost.

4.
Using the amount of money the students said they’d take with them to the
restaurant, see if they can afford the meals and which ones.

5.
Discuss with the students why they need this knowledge.

6.
On the board, find the percent of money spent and percent saved for each meal.

7.
On the board, find the fraction of money spent and the fraction saved for each
meal.

### Day 4

#### Beginning Board Work:

Fractions
to Percent

¼

7/8

¾

5/3

9/11

1. Have the students pick a different
restaurant. Tell them their budget (it will depend on which restaurant they
picked.) Mine picked McDonald's- so we discussed how tipping is not generally done for fast food (unless the person does an amazing job.) (I decided to add a little language arts into the lesson.)

A little English lesson in math. ;) |

2.
Let each student pick their own meal and add up the costs. While you do your
own on the board.

3.
Ask the students to find the range, mean, median, and mode of the prices of the
food they have ordered.

4.
Remind the students about taxes and tip. Assume that the waiter/waitress did an
average job.

At
this point you may have run out of time. Actually calculating the tip and tax
will come on Day 5.

### Day 5

#### Beginning Board Work:

Percent
to Decimals

75%

50%

30%

20%

11%

1.
Have the students calculate the tip and tax for their meal.

2.
Add the tip and tax to the price of the meal for the total cost.

3.
Find out if their meal was in the budget.

4.
Have the students find the percent they spent and the percent they saved.

5.
Have the students find the fraction they spent and the fraction they saved.

6.
If there is extra time (hopefully!) Discuss why it’s a good idea to save some
of that money- put it in the bank for later so instead of needing loans you can
pay with what you have. Discuss loans, interest, and paying plans (my students
were really interested in finding out how old they would be to pay off a car or
a house if they bought it right now) as well as bank accounts, CD’s, stocks,
bonds, and interest on them.

### Day 6

#### Beginning Board Work:

Percent
to Decimals

25%

100%

60%

15%

13%

1.
Remind the students what you’ve been doing with the students so far. Review.

2.
Discuss how the students will be going to a restaurant later to practice these
skills. Go over table manners and politeness in general.

3.
Ask if students have any difficulty or questions about any of the steps in what
they’ve been doing.

4.
Review and help the students work out the issues they may be having with any of
the steps.

### Day 7:

#### Beginning Board Work:

Percent
to Fractions

30%

50%

60%

45%

100%

1.Give
students the Dairy Queen Quiz.

### Day 8:

#### Beginning Board Work:

Percent
to Fractions

15%

75%

80%

70%

13%

1.
Go over Dairy Queen Quiz as a class.

### Day 9:

Field
Trip!

1.
Go to a restaurant with the students and bring along the Field Trip Worksheet.

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